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The 1990s witnessed the normalization of relations between China and Vietnam Whole Story

Secret: The 1990s witnessed the normalization of relations between China and Vietnam Whole Story
At 13:57 on April 29, 2010

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January 18, 1950, the newly established People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. China was the first country after the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and established diplomatic relations with the recognition. 1960s to the 1970s, China's hinterland as Vietnam, to support Vietnam's against the law, the fight against the United States, the two peoples have forged a profound friendship. Ho Chi Minh had used "the more the deep friendship, comrades and brothers," a poem to praise the friendly relations between China and Vietnam.

From the late 1970s to the late 1980s, the difficult relations between the two countries. The main problem is that the Vietnamese troops occupied Cambodia, leading to tense regional situation, also dropped to the low-Vietnam relations. By the mid-1980s, Vietnam realize the heavy burden of Cambodia brought in March 1985 for the first time, said the withdrawal from Cambodia. After December 1986 as the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Committee General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh, more substantial adjustments in domestic and foreign policies begin to seek to resolve problems and improve relations with China, Cambodia. Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping put forward the idea of a stable southern border. At this time, although Vietnam relations in an abnormal state, but each are considering taking some loose initiatives.


At 10:30 on December 14, 1988, the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese embassy called and said, First Deputy Foreign Minister of Vietnam Ding Ru Lian Li Shichun Please enable greater the Chinese Embassy in at 10:00 on the 15th to the Vietnamese Foreign Ministry, talks between the two countries relations, Ambassador Li Shichun hope the timely reporting should be about. Logically speaking, the Foreign Ministry, Ambassador to the host country is extremely common thing, but because of the deterioration of Sino-Vietnamese relations, the Chinese Embassy in the various departments almost no dealings with the Vietnamese side. So suddenly the Vietnamese side to call the embassy naturally very cautious, not easily stand, then immediately made ​​referrals to domestic reports. That night, he replied that domestic, Lishi Chun can go see Ding Ru Lian, mainly listen to each other what to say, may allow reporting of domestic and in accord with the intent naturally understand the Vietnamese side, but on the spot without having to make any statement.   15 morning, Li Shichun arrive Vietnamese Foreign Ministry. Lim Ding Ru personally a letter to Foreign Minister Nguyen cornerstone Foreign Minister Qian, asked China to agree Nguyen cornerstone in March 1989 went to Beijing, met with Qian. The letter said:. "We believe that Vietnam and China is ripe to sit together so that we cooperate with each other for the Cambodian parties to reach a political solution to create the proper conditions on the basis of national reconciliation," "In that spirit, I am ready to consider appropriate at the earliest time that you go to Beijing with you to hold a secret or public meetings. "Ding Ru Lim also added that in the past had twice asked Nguyen cornerstone to Beijing, the Chinese side said Qian busy with work, Vietnam can understand. Vietnam hopes are now taking the time to meet with Qian Ruan cornerstone in more than three months. Vietnam sincerely hope that an early settlement of the Cambodian problem, normalize their relations in order to conform to the current general trends in the world.

Domestic letters and conversations Lim Ding Ru Nguyen made ​​a careful study of the cornerstone that Vietnam's position on Cambodia has been the emergence of new loose, you can with the Vietnamese side on the Cambodia-Vietnam relations issues, particularly issues make contact. But given the foreign ministers' meeting is an important political initiatives in the prevailing situation of bilateral relations, the time is not yet ripe. Then on Dec. 23 replies Chinese Embassy in Vietnam, please tell李世淳about Ding Ru Lian: China believes that the realization of the two foreign ministers meeting there are many preparations to be done, for Vietnam in the near future proposal to send a deputy foreign minister to Beijing, on the early political settlement of the Cambodia hold internal consultations. China also does not recommend the cornerstone of a letter published Nguyen, bilateral contacts do not open negotiations message.

December 24 morning,李世淳to see Ding Ru Lian, said China's views and told the Vietnamese side. Before this, the Chinese side had twice met with Nguyen did not receive the cornerstone, the Vietnamese side how to reply to the hearts of the Chinese bottomless. Lishi Chun answer, although not mentioning the issue Nguyen cornerstone to Beijing, but the Vietnamese side agreed to send a deputy foreign minister to Beijing, in fact position has loosened, it can not help but contrary to expectations Lim Ding Ru.

Lim Ding Ru twice said "thank you very much." He said the Vietnamese side welcomed China's letter to respond quickly cornerstone Nguyen, welcomes China showed sincerity in reply. To promote further mutual understanding between Vietnam and must hold an internal meeting between the two countries as soon as possible. China suggests that Vietnam is the first to send a deputy foreign minister to Beijing to prepare for the meeting between the two foreign ministers, which is a good step, but also very necessary. He also said that the Vietnamese side agreed to the Chinese side, the current contacts and consultations between the two countries were conducted in secret, not publicly. 

December 27, Vietnamese Ambassador to Ruanming Fang said when meeting with Deputy Foreign Minister Liu Shuqing, he has received domestic Bulletin, Ding Ru Lian met李世淳know something, the more the Founder's Deputy Foreign Minister for bilateral negotiations to make serious preparations. Learn now ordered two questions: First, is China's views on the meeting time; Second, what the Chinese consider the contents of the meeting.

Liu Shuqing said the meeting on time, Vietnam can first put a preliminary opinion that China reconsider. China believes that in early January 1989 or mid-may. About the meeting content, the Chinese know that the problem is most concerned about Vietnam to normalize relations between the two countries as soon as possible. The Chinese side believes that Cambodia must first solve the problem, and then to talk about the normalization of bilateral relations. Liu Shuqing stressed that the consultations, the two deputy foreign ministers will focus on how a fair and reasonable solution to Cambodia as soon as possible to discuss the issue, as the normalization of bilateral relations can be discussed later.

December 31, the Vietnamese Foreign Ministry China Division Commissioner Ruan Bo Ju informed Chinese Embassy Second Secretary Hu dry text: Ding Ru Lim and his party intends in January 1989月16日(星期一) or 18日(星期三) multiplied by China's civil aviation flight from Bangkok to Beijing. Due to the time between the two railways, roads and air routes are interrupted, Ding Ru Lian line only detour to Beijing.

January 10, 1989, Ruan Bo Hu Ju Commissioner to dry Ru Lim Ding Wen briefed his party list. Ju said Peter Nguyen, scheduled delegations of 4 people, but the Vietnamese side to fully recognize the significance of this consultation, it was decided by a four to eight people, namely First Deputy Foreign Minister Ambassador Ruanming Fang Ding Ru Lim, Minister of Foreign Affairs Assistant Deng Yan Heng, such as Embassy Counsellor Huang Li, deputy director of the Chinese Foreign Ministry Secretary Chen Youyi, Chinese Foreign Ministry Secretary and translator Commissioner Peter Nguyen torch, Third Secretary Embassy and the Embassy every week Gong suite Pei Zhongyun. Peter Nguyen dry Wen Ju Hu also said that China agreed to negotiate with Vietnam, the Vietnam National is a huge inspiration. Vietnam combat 10 years, can no longer fight anymore. The more central the country has a high, intermediate cadres convey the forthcoming negotiations regarding Vietnam and China, all the cadres are welcome, and I hope the success of negotiations. Nguyen cornerstone also said that the Vietnamese side will not miss the opportunity to work with the Chinese side will mutually acceptable agreement.

According to Vietnam to participate in the consultations personnel arrangements, China has decided to participate in the consultations by six people, that Vice Foreign Minister Liu Shuqing, Xu Dunxin Assistant, Zhang Qing, deputy director of Asian Affairs, Xieyue E Counselor, Li Jiazhong Registrar, Deputy Commissioner and Chairman Hu translation.

January 13, 1989, Ding Ru Lian party left to go to Bangkok, Hanoi. Vietnamese Foreign Ministry Deputy Foreign Minister Nguyen Dy Nien, Acting Director of the Division Chinese Ambassador Wu will be prime李世淳off at the airport. Lim Ding Ru李世淳at the airport, said the Vietnamese side of the consultations general guiding principle is common ground, mutual understanding, hope that both sides can take care of each other, listen to each other advice, so that negotiations for more results.


At 18:20 on the 14th, Ding Ru Lian line multiplied by the Chinese airliners arrived in Beijing, Guangzhou via Bangkok. As the secret negotiations, the aircraft stopped at the airport a relatively remote corner of the ice on the ground, in my capacity as Director of the Foreign Ministry boarded the plane to greet him. Liu Shuqing, Zhang Qing and Vietnamese Ambassador Ruanming Fang greeted at the old airport lounge. There were dozens of foreign reporters heard a Vietnamese senior officials to Beijing, he hurried to the airport. Since China's ingenious arrangements, avoiding reporters so they found nothing. Vietnam has said previously, Ding Ru Lian line will be living in Beijing during the Vietnam Embassy. After the Chinese side expressed its willingness to arrange for them to live in the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse dews Church, all costs by the Chinese hospitality. Vietnam accepted the kindness and thanked the Chinese side.

15 evening, Liu Shuqing held a banquet at the Diaoyutai State Building 7, welcome Ding Ru Lian line. Liu Shuqing said the Sino-Vietnamese relations are very good in the past, then the relationship deteriorated, we are very sad. China believes that the continued confrontation is not in the interests of the two peoples, bilateral relations should be back to normal. But first, the biggest differences between the two countries should be - Cambodia issue is resolved. The task is arduous negotiations, significant, although it is an internal consultation, the whole world knows. We want to work very well in order to achieve results, do not live up to the two peoples and the world public opinion hope.   Ding Ru Lian said that his first 10 years with an opportunity to sit with the Chinese comrades, this is the beginning of the normalization of bilateral relations. Vietnam and China to gradually improve relations in the interests of the two peoples, but also in line with the world toward detente and resolve differences through negotiation the general trend. He said that Vietnam is ready to discuss the issue with China, Cambodia, but also to talk about the normalization of bilateral relations.

16 am, and continued into the afternoon consultations held in the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Chaoyangmennei third floor conference rooms. 17, 2009, Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister Xu Dunxin and Vietnamese Assistant Foreign Minister Tang Yan Heng discussed a whole day. The two sides focused on Cambodia, the main results are:

(a) on the issue of withdrawal from Cambodia to Vietnam, the Vietnamese side reaffirmed the political settlement in Cambodia under the Framework document problems, no later than September 1989 total withdrawal from Cambodia, and said it was decisions more top leaders. China to Vietnam withdrawal time promised no objection, but stressed that the withdrawal must be true withdrawal.

(b) the parties stopped outside assistance to Cambodia to ensure the neutrality of Cambodia, the implementation of international supervision and international guarantees, both sides opinions converge.

(c) The main differences between the two sides is how to ensure peace in Cambodia after the Vietnamese withdrawal. In order to avoid civil war in Cambodia, China stands to withdraw all its troops in Vietnam after the election of the transitional period before the new government of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk should be set up to led coalition government in Cambodia Quartet has participated in by the coalition government presided over the election; freeze while factions in the army, the army will be reduced to the same number of factions to establish a unified defense force. The so-called Quartet of Cambodia, Phnom Penh is the Vietnamese government to support one side, the resistance forces on the other. The resistance forces also includes three parties, namely Sihanouk party, Son Sann and the Khmer Rouge party party. Vietnam believes that this is the aspect of the Cambodian problem, namely internal problems in Cambodia, the Cambodian parties to the discussion should be resolved not by Vietnam and the two sides discussed.

At the same time, Vietnam has repeatedly asked to discuss the normalization of bilateral relations and the many specific proposals, such as the parties to cease hostile propaganda, the cessation of hostilities in the land border between the two countries and island territories across the board, both sides armed forces in the border area forces should be out of contact for the two sides to provide convenience border exchanges and make a living.

The Chinese side said that Cambodia should first solve problems and create conditions for the normalization of Sino-Vietnamese relations. I believe that with the withdrawal from Cambodia to Vietnam and Cambodia to solve the problem, the Sino-Vietnamese relations will gradually improve.

January 19, met in the Foreign Ministry Qian Ding Ru Lian line on how to solve problems and improve the Cambodia-Vietnam relations made ​​an important conversation. Qian said the Chinese side in the negotiations as set forth in our opinion is the central opinions, Comrade Lim Ding Ru Report Vietnamese leaders, and serious consideration. China and Vietnam have a traditional friendship, but also the neighboring countries, the struggle for national salvation against the United States in Vietnam, China made ​​a national sacrifice. But what happened between the two countries resulted in a 10-year-long problem. Qian said that the current climate of international situation is easing and dialogue to end regional conflicts. Countries are concentrating engage in economic construction, the Vietnamese people want to live a peaceful life also put Vietnam into a prosperous country. Because of this, we decided in September of this year Vietnam welcomed the withdrawal from Cambodia, Vietnam's hope the decision can really put into practice. The internal consultations made ​​a lot in common. About Cambodian internal problems, of course, should be in the absence of external interference by the Cambodian Quartet themselves. But as the parties of Vietnam and Cambodia have a direct relationship with the Soviet Union, China, Thailand, this should be a clear assertion that after the withdrawal of foreign troops and stop foreign aid, Cambodia should implement joint Quartet, to achieve national reconciliation Do not civil war and unrest, this is a very important issue. Relevant countries should take a positive and constructive attitude, and even more so in Vietnam. China will not make things difficult for Vietnam, but the Vietnamese have faith. The consultation has been a good start, you can continue. China is ready to do some of the problems further. Welcome Comrade Lim Ding Ru periodically come back to Beijing. Please Lian Qian Ding Ru cornerstone convey his greetings to Foreign Minister Nguyen, Nguyen said it had received a letter from the cornerstone. Qian said that as China has answered it, the two foreign ministers meeting there are many preparations to be done, progress in Cambodia only be possible to consider. Some basic aspects of the Cambodian problem can be solved, such as improving and normalization of bilateral relations would be the natural result.

Ding Ru Lian Qian met on thanked and conveyed greetings Nguyen cornerstone for Qian. Ding Ru Lim stressed that an early settlement of the Cambodian problem and the normalization of relations between Vietnam and concentrate on engaging in economic construction, is a long-term strategy for Vietnam. Through this consultation, the two sides enhanced mutual understanding, in many respects have made ​​the same. Of course, there are some differences. Vietnam is willing to look forward and hope to continue to exchange views with the Chinese side. He himself ready to come back to Beijing, some issues have not yet reached an understanding to resolve.

In the 18th and final plenary meeting, Ding Ru Lian evaluation of this consultation is to Vietnam relations "groundbreaking step."

Ding Ru Lian was the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Committee, a former ambassador to the Soviet Union, was a very shrewd diplomat. From 1977 to 1978, he served as head of the Vietnamese government delegation to Beijing to conduct bilateral land border talks with China's Deputy Foreign Minister Han Nianlong. I, as a translator and records, took part in the negotiations. In the context of bilateral relations at the time, the two sides are negotiating rhetoric inevitably overweight. But 10 years later, this time to Beijing Ding Ru Lian was extremely cautious and pay attention to propriety, have demonstrated courteous.

To Beijing the day, when I walked into the airport, accompanied by his old lounge the hall, I saw him gently coat off, hanging on coat hook, then pulled out a small comb from a suit pocket, his hair combed After neat to go into the lounge to meet with Liu Shuqing et al. Liu Shuqing, held at the welcoming banquet, Ding Ru Lian note reflects the relaxed and laughing. He also told me that he was very fond of poetry, and coming back on the spot to recite the poem "Last year, this door today, Moment of truth matched red, people do not know where to go, Love and be loved." Consultations, some of his views on the Chinese side, though not agree, but not face to face criticism, but listened patiently and said he would report back to the leadership of the country.

At that time, Deputy Foreign Minister Han Nianlong from the post of stepping down as president of the Institute of Foreign Affairs. To be friendly and courtesy, Han Nianlong come forward at the 19th Qianmen Quanjude Roast Duck Restaurant at noon Please Ding Ru Lian row tasting duck. Lim Ding Ru negotiators met 10 years ago, Han Nianlong, quickly stepped forward to embrace. Lim Ding Ru in the 20th row, left Beijing via Shenzhen, Hong Kong home. Zhang Qing, and Asia, and I can accompany high German company to Shenzhen to visit. In Shenzhen, Ding Ru Lian with both hands holding my two arms, said: "Please be assured that we will withdraw all its troops from Cambodia"

Normalization of relations between

Early September 1990, the CPV Central Committee General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh, Council of Ministers and the Communist Party of Vietnam Central Advisory席杜梅Pham Van Dong was invited to Chengdu, held an internal meeting with Jiang Zemin, Premier Li Peng, on a political solution to the Cambodian problem and Sino-Vietnamese relations, held high-level meetings, achieved important consensus and paved the way for the normalization of bilateral relations. At the end of the meeting, Jiang Zemin Jiang Yong Qing Dynasty poet quoted poem "crossing we remain brothers smile can melt away allies and enemies." To echo, Nguyen Van Linh wrote four poems in the evening: "Brothers at the turn of a few generations pass, instant resentment of the clouds, to meet again when the smile Exhibition, Millennium friendship and reconstruction."

In November 1991, the CPV Central Committee General Secretary Do Muoi, chairman of the Council of Ministers Vo Van Kiet was invited to China for an official goodwill visit, held talks with Jiang Zemin and Li Peng, the two sides issued a joint communique announcing the normalization of Sino-Vietnamese relations. Since then, nearly 20 years, under the joint efforts of both sides, bilateral exchanges and cooperation in various fields of continuous development and deepening mutual trust gradually. February 1999, the CPV Central Committee General Secretary Le Kha During the visit, the two leaders issued a "Joint Statement" to determine the new century, 16-character principle guiding the healthy development of China-Vietnam relations, that "long-term stability, future orientation, good-neighborliness, full cooperation". After that, the two leaders further determined efforts to target the two countries and two peoples, that will never become "good neighbors, good friends, good comrades and good partners". Of course, the two sides are still some differences and disputes. April 2009, Premier Wen Jiabao to attend the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2009 of the Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung said that the South China Sea between China and Vietnam is the last unresolved historical issues. Both sides should take the high ground, from the overall situation, actively safeguard the South China Sea stability and promoting mutually beneficial cooperation, seek common development of the South China Sea has taken a positive step. I believe that with joint efforts in the coming years, in the good-neighborly and friendly relations will move toward a more stable direction.

 Source: Communist Party of China News Network

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